Blood Donation Facts
is it necessary to know your own Blood Group?
We come across different news on accidents in our day
to day life. At certain places, we hear of emerging riots,
bomb blasts, Earthquakes, Floods or people suffering
from hemophilia all gives rise to requirements of blood
for their treatment of patients. Out of which few require
blood in an emergency and during such times, if the blood
group of the patient is unknown then it may lead to fatal
delays. Thus it makes it very important to know one’s
own blood group.
What is meant by Blood group?
If the colour of everyone’s blood is red, then what is
the difference in their blood? This difference is due
to differences in the blood properties. Human Blood has
been differentiated into 4 parts. Our blood majorly consists
of components like plasma, platelets, white blood cells
and red blood cells. Similarly blood also consists of
a protein known as antigen. It is due to the differences
in this antigen that differentiates human blood from
each other. This differentiated form of blood is known
as blood groups. A, AB, B & O are the four major
blood groups, which again gets differentiated into two
categories each based on RH+ & RH- factor, thus making
the number of blood groups as 8. The blood group A has
proteins A, Blood group B has proteins B, AB has both
proteins A & B, whereas Blood group O has neither
A nor B. The RH in the blood is again pure protein, its
presence in the blood is termed as RH positive and its
absence in the blood is called RH negative. Blood group
transfer is not hereditary and so the blood groups of
brothers and sisters need not be same.
with the blood group O can donate their blood to
anyone and so they are called “universal donor”.
The number of people with O Blood group is the highest
and this constitutes nearly 46%. The availability
of a negative blood group is very less, out of which
the availability of AB negative blood group is 1
out of 5000.
Before carrying out blood transfusion it’s very important
to cross match the blood groups of the donor and the
Who can Donate Blood and how?
The selection process of the blood donor is done following
a few guidelines. The donor should be of the age group
ranging from 18 to 60 years, Body weight should exceed
45 kg. The quantity of hemoglobin should exceed 12.5
gm %. The quantity of hemoglobin is determined by using
blue coloured copper sulphate solution.
The blood from the donor’s finger is dissolved in the
solution and through this it is determined whether
the donor’s hemoglobin quantity is above 12.5. The
donor should not have donated blood for minimum of
3 months. The patients suffering from Heart disease,
Diabetes, Blood pressure or any other disease should
consult before donating blood. A donor shouldn’t donate
blood on empty stomach or before half an hour of eating
After selecting the appropriate donor, blood should
be collected in an anti germic bag in 350ml. In order
that blood shouldn’t coagulate, a certain solution
is also mixed in the blood storing bags. The process
blood collection requires only 10 – 15 minutes. Every
time a donor donates blood, disposable needles and
bags are used, which discards the fear of contracting
diseases. All such blood collection bags are stored
in special fridges with temperature maintained at 2-3˚
C, where blood can be stored for 35 days without causing
any kind of blood spoilage.
Donors blood is tested for V.D.R.L., H.I.V., Hepatitis
B, Hepatitis C, Malaria, etc. After all the tests conducted,
the most appropriate blood is selected to be transfused
to the ill person.
Various tests are performed in order to cross match
the blood groups of the healthy donor and the ill person.
Major cross matching includes cross matching of donor’s
RBC and receiver’s plasma, while minor cross matching
includes cross matching of donor’s plasma with receiver’s
RBC. During the cross matching, the testing are carefully
done through microscope.
A healthy person has 5-6 liters of blood flowing through
his body and during blood donation only 350 ml of blood
is taken. This blood is then restored in the body within
48 hrs of blood donation. A person can resume his daily
activities immediately after donating blood. Thus there
are no fears or restrictions as far as blood donation
by a healthy donor is concerned.
A healthy donor can donate his blood again after 3
months of making a donation. Rather than one person
donating 100 times, it would be more useful if 100
people donate once every year and these 100 donors
can donate 2500 to 4000 bottles of blood in their entire
lifetime. “Donate Blood on your Birthday”, if this
message is spread all over India, then all the shortages
related to blood will be met very easily.
The benefits of Blood donation:
Blood Donation is the best possible kind of donation.
Not only the receiver but also the donor benefit
out of blood donation as your blood is frequently
tested every time you donate blood.
You can get to know your blood group during blood
donation as it is always mentioned in the donor’s
Blood donation makes your heart healthy as all
the additional unwanted body salts are removed during
During Blood Donation, you receive a Donor’s card
which can be utilized to obtain blood during emergency